Fundamental Of File System:
Linux operating system represents the information in the form of files. The files are separated with particular character and symbol. We can display the files format using ls command. There is some special file that controls the structure of the file. Here “-” identify the regular files, d identify a directory, l identify symbolic link file, B identifies Block special files, C identify character special file, P identify named pipe files and S identify socket special files.
If the block special files is used to create the relation between hardware and block of data at a time. It is basically used for hardware communication files. The named pipe provide connect the output of one Unix process to the input of another. It is a special file that based on FIFO. The socket file is a special file that used for interprocess communication. It allows communication between the processes and sent all received the file across the Linux system.
The hardware components, memory devices, and other files represented in the form of files format. Unix-Linux system provides different files and software components to hardware and its related information it means the system manage the files and other information using the software it uses block and character related files for controlling the device.
The system uses a device for data storage and secondary media like flash drive, magnetic tape etc. These devices are connected with system memory and represented as removable media. The administrator attaches the device to system memory for processing. Linux system allows us to connect with root directory for data storing into the removable media.
1. Mount command:
It is a command that allows attaching the removable media to system memory. In this, we pass device name and drive name for the mounting process. The secondary devices like CD, Floppy drive etc mounted with system memory to store the information.
Mount∅<device name>∅<drive name>
2. Unmount command:
It is a process to remove the connected device with system memory. We use unmount command to execute the unmount process like eject.
Unmount∅<device name>∅<drivve name>
3. SUDO command:
It is a command that allows to mount the removable media and execute particular command also. It is basically used for USB media. We can execute the particular command another external device.
File System Checking:
The Unix operating system run file checking process automatically when the user mounts devices with the system.The system administrators can also execute the file checking process through a command line. The command FSCK is used to check the file and its related information after mounting. In this, we pass option-0 for full checking of the connected device.
Checking Free Space:
Linux system allows us to check the free space and user space from the system memory or particular drive. A command dx is used to check uses space of the disk and df command is used to check the free space of the disk.
The files are stored in the system memory at the particular location. Linux system allows us a command to find the files from the system memory on the base of the name, size, modification time etc.
It is a command that allows finding the files from the system memory.
It is an option that allows searching the files with a files name.
It is an option that allows accessing the files with the help of access time.
This option searches the files on the base of modification time of the files
It is an option that searches the files on the base of file size.
find|ab|xy-size 10 kb.
The operating system store different type of files into the system memory for managing a simple mistake given under Unix operating system can destroy the important files due to system hardware or software components. Unix operating system allows us to protect the user files after executing the backup process. There are lots of external devices are used to hold the files as backup. We can recover the corrupted file from backup devices and stored in the system.
1. tar command:
It is a command that allows executing the backup process of the particulars files. An archive file is a single file that holds a number of files that save at another media storage. TAR is a simplest and easy for creating the archive files, In this command define the storage location for storing the information into archive format.
There are some files that store into the system with a large amount of memory. We can compress the files using a particular command in Unix operating system for controlling the data with minimum storage.
1. Compress command:
It is a command that compresses this files with minimum storage. In this, we pass particular files name.
For example Compress∅<files name>
2. Uncompress command:
It is a command that extracts the file into a readable format using a compressed file that saved with .zextension.
For example uncompress∅<filename>
3. Gzip command:
It is also a command that allows to compress the files and save with gz extension.
For example gz∅<file name>
4. Gunzip command:
It is a command that extracts the files which are compressed by gzip command.
For example genzip∅<file name>
5. Zip command:
It is a command that helps to create compress files and save with .zip extension.
For example zip∅<file name>
6. Unzip command:
This command is used to extract the zip files.
For example Unzip∅<file name>
Creating File Archive:
Unix operating allow a command Tar with a different option for creating the archive files. We use ‘c’ for creating the copy of the backup file, ‘x’ to extract the archive file, ‘l’ list the contents of archive files, ‘-r’ append the new file into existing storage. This option ate used with TAR command.
Extracting File Archive:
The archive files are used to combine more than one files together. We can extract the archive files into general files format using the command and x option. We define the particular location with Tar command for extracting the files into the normal format.
It is long-lasting of the contents of the files or portions of systems memory it controlled by Unix Kernel. It is basically used to manage the files which are a failure by the system. In listening, it displays contents of the memory as well as a state of the system at the time of failure. This information is stored in a particular file that it is known as core files.
Creating File Archive With Other Tools:
Unix operating system provides different tools to create the archive files using multiple general files. Unix system provides different compress technique like zipping, yum etc for the archive file. Yum basically used to install the zip or unzip program.
1. CPIO( Copy Input Output):
It is a process to restore the backup files into the system memory. We can also use the re-direction operators and be pipelining symbols to create the copy of a backup files and execute another command also, for example, CPIO∅path of a file.
2. DD(Disk Drive):
It is a command that used to create the image of system files. It is similar to the disk copy command of DOS. It is basically used to create the image of system hard disk. In this, we use ‘IF’ option for defining the folder name and ‘OF’ used for temporary files and ‘BS’ used to define the size of contents ‘-d’ option is used to define the directory.