Basic Linux File System

File system in linux
image source:-http://fossbytes.com

Linux File System:

Files system in linux
image source:-http://fossbytes.com

Linux operating system uses different types of files to manage the configurations, devices etc. There are different files are used to manage the memories and other processing files. Linux system defines each and everything in the form of a file.

Partition Of File:

The data are stored in the memory in the form of the file in hard disk. The user can retrieve the data, store the data in the form of a file into the system memory. Linux system uses different part to separate the files for processing. The hard disk is formatted into the different logical part and each part contains particular file into that memory, that is known as the partition. A hard disk space usage for different files and partition for accessing the data.

1. Swap Directory:

It is a part of the hard disk that contains swapping related files and use 120 Mb for memory space.

2. Directory:

It uses 60% of available memory to store the information of user and system.

3. Bin Directory:

It uses 20% of available memory to store the information of user and system.

4. User Directory:

The remaining space for user directory and files.

5. Root File System:

It is a file system that allows managing root directory that contains the Unix file details in the form of subdirectories like bin, lib, dev etc. The path of the file is separated with /.

6. Boot File System:

It is a file system that maintains the Unix kernel related information and manages the Boot program also.

7. Swap File System:

It is a files system that contains files which are related to swapping between main memory and other files related location. The kernel moves the file location between the main memories for swapping and maintain its details in a file.

8. User File System:

This file contains all the user data which are created by the user. The files are maintained in name directory and separated with ‘/’.

Type Of Files System:

1. S5:

It is the Unix file system that maintains the files. it is the oldest file system that uses 14 characters as the file name and 0-65536 i-node number. It manages the disk fragmentation and supports media between older files.

2. UFC(Unix File System):

It is a file system that maintains all the features of S5 and controls the advance feature of the file system. It supports long file name not restricted to the i-node number. This is the default file system on Solaris system.

3. VXFS(Veritas Extend Based File System):

It is a file system that manages UFS and S5 structure and also verifies the files then recover if the file failure or corrupt. This takes several minutes per disk after a system crashed as generating the error at booting process. This file system reduces the file fragmentation.

4. HSFS(High Sierra File System):

It provides structure for arranging the files that maintain in ISO 9660 standard layout.

5. TMPS(Temporary File System):

It is RAM based system that maintains temporarily directory related information. This file system is available in particular file system.

Structure File System:

Unix file system consists of a sequence of a local block and divided into the different logical part for managing the data on the base of given size.

1. Boot Block:

It is a block of Unix system that manages booting related file system that may contain Bootstrap code that helps to start the computer. The main memory uses this block to load the important file related to operating system.

2. Super Block:

It is a block that describes the state of a file system. It maintains the global information about the file system and free i-node or data block which can be allocated by the kernel when a new file is created.

3. I-node Block:

This block contains a table for all file of the file system. All structures of a file and directory are stored in the area are accept the name of the file or directory.

4. Data Block:

It is a block that contains date and programs created by the user and allocated data belong to one and only one file in the system.

I-Node System:

It is a data structure that contains all info about a file such a disk layer of the file. The system read the file, file i-node number for getting the details of existing file. It maintains the unique identification number of the particular file. The user can easily identify file and system retrieve the file path using i-node. It maintains the file name, file type, file path, file processing details size of the file etc. The kernel provides a unique number of the file as i-node.


It is a container that contains the files and sub-directories. It is basically used for managing the files and file structure. We define the directory name to identify the files and its location each file or directory contact a unique number as i-node that display:

LS-i anna↵

1. Hard Link:

It is a process to create the link between the files. After creating the link the i-node number of the files are same.

A) ln:

It is a command that allows creating the linking between the files as the hard link where the i-node numbers are same. It means after creating the link the i-node number of both files are same.

ln∅<old file>∅<new file>



ls-i anna↵

ls-i kanna↵

2. Symbol/Soft Link:

It is a linking process that also creates the link with the different i-node number. We use ls command with I opted to display the i-node number and ln-s command is used to create the symbolic link.

ls∅-s∅<old file>∅<new file>


ls-i anna↵

ls-i kanna↵


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