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Digital Components of Computer Organisation

Computer Organisation:

A system is a combination of hardware & software components and all are interrelated and interdependent together for processing the data. It is a powerful tool that executes the instructions too fast with accuracy. The organization, companies, and school etc used a computer to process the data and instructions. It is constructed with different electronic tools in an organized format.

1. Digital Computer:

Digital Computer
image source:-http://digitalranny.com

It is a computer that processes the data in a digital format like 0 & 1.

2. Analog Computer:

Analog computer type
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It is also a computer that processes the data into the analog format as a wave. This computer basically used for medical purpose.

Computer Design:

It is consoled with the way of hardware and software components development. It also helps to implement the computer for processing.

Function Unit Of Computer:

1. CPU:

It is the main processing unit that executes the instruction and generates output.

2. Input/Output Unit:

It is a functional unit that controls an input/output device and its processing.

3. Storage Unit:

The system uses the different type of memory to store the data as temporary or permanent.

Computer Architecture:

Computer architecture
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It is a console with the structure of hardware components and its related modules. A system user interfaces to interact with each module for managing the user instruction and generate output.

1. VON NEUMANN Architecture:

Bus. Memory. Processor (CPU) Input-Output. Control Unit. Communicate with. outside world , e.g. Screen. Keyboard. Storage devices. ... Store data and program. Execute program. ALU. Do arithmetic/logic operations requested by program. CMPUT101 Introduction to Computing. (c) Yngvi Bjornsson & Vadim Bulitko.
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A computer that constructed with the storage unit that contains data section and program section at the same memory location.

2. Hardware Architecture:

Data server
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It is an architecture that defines the data section and program section and store in the separate memory.

Building blocks of computer:

The hardware component of a computer consists of different electronic parts and its process as a separate unit. The electronic units are assembled together to control the instruction and generate output using a computer.

1. Boolean Variable:

It is a temporary location that holds the value in 0 & 1 format. It means the state of the boolean variable is only true or false.

2. Truth Table:

It is a process to represent the value of the boolean variable into a table format. It helps us to construct the circuit or expression for data processing.

3. Logic Gate:

NOT , AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XNOR GATE.
image source:-https://i.imgur.com

The system uses logical operators that generate output in the form of 0 & 1. The circuits are connected to different logic gates and except the input and generate output as 0 & 1.

A) OR Logical Gate:
Diagram + truth table of OR gate
image source:-http://www.circuitstoday.com

It is a logical operator that process the data in the form of binary like 0 & 1 as the logical statement. It compares the values are 0 otherwise return 1.

B) AND Logical Gate:
For two variables
image source:-http://www.circuitstoday.com

It is an operator that returns 0 if any value is 0 and return 1 if all values are 1.

C) NOT Logical Gate:
x=x`
image source:-http://www.circuitstoday.com

This logical operator returns complement of the given value. It means it returns 1 if the input is 0 and 0 if the input is 1.

D) NOR Logical Gate:
Symbol for Nor gate
image source:-http://www.circuitstoday.com

It is a logical operator that defines as not or it means it returns complement of OR logical operator. It returns 0 if any value is 1 otherwise 0.

E) NAND Logical Gate:
Nand Gate truth table
image source:-http://www.circuitstoday.com

It is a gate that identifies as NOT-AND gate. It returns complement of AND logical operator. It returns 1 if all values are 0 or any value is 1 otherwise 0.

F) X-OR Logical Gate:
Diagram of Xor gate
image source:-http://www.circuitstoday.com

It is a logical operator that return exclusive of OR logical gate. It returns 0 if both values are equal otherwise return 1.

G) XNOR Logical Gate:
XNOR gate with truth table
image source:-http://www.circuitstoday.com

It is a logical operator that returns complement of XOR logical operator. It returns 0 if both values are different or 1 if all or both values are same.

Demorgan Theorem:

Both rules of de-morgans
image source:-http://2.bp.blogspot.com

 

1. The complement of a sum is equal to the product of complement:

A B A+B (A+B)^
0 0 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 1 0

 

A B A^ B^ A^ * B^
0 0 1 1 1
0 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 0
1 1 0 0 0

2. The complement of a product is equal to the sum of complement:

A B A*B (A*B)^
0 0 0 1
0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 0
A B A^ B^ A^ + B^
0 0 1 1 1
0 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 0 0

Combinational Circuit:

Combinational Logic Circuit
image source:-https://www.tutorialspoint.com

These are different logic gates used for representing the value in the form of 0 and 1 and generate output. The logical operator is also defined with particular circuits together for getting the values and generate output.

The circuits are constructed on the base of boolean expression which values are represented into 0 and 1 in complement and non-complement format.

1.Boolean Expression:

Rules of Boolean
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It is the combination of boolean variables that define with complement and non-complement format. The variables are combined with the help of operators. For example:

A^+B^A^B+A*B^+A*B

2. Minimization of Boolean Expression:

Postulates Equation
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The boolean expression is represented with boolean variable and combined using operators. The expression is represented in POS(Product Of Sum) format, also introduced as minterm/maxterm respectively. We can minimize the boolean expression on the base of its operator.

Jordan Canonical Form:

Canonical Form
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It is a process to represent the boolean expression into an alternative form like POS to SOP or vice-versa. This method helps us to minimize the boolean expression into alternative form.

Flip-Flop:

Flip-flop diagram
image source:-https://upload.wikimedia.org

It is a combinational circuit that accepts the input and generates output in a form of 0 and 1. It is the smallest unit of data storage that contains the binary value with 2 bit. This circuit constructed with logical gates that process the instruction in electronic format.

1. R-S Flip-Flop:

Table of SR Flip-Flop
image source:-http://www.electronicsengineering.nbcafe.in

It is a flip-flop that constructed with the logical circuit and accepts 2 variables as input and returns complement and non-complement output. It accepts 0,0 input then returns no change, an input is 0,1 then an output is set 1, the input is 1,0 then output reset by 0 and returns forbidden when the input is 1,1. Forbidden means the system gets disconnected or returns unwanted values.

2. J-K Flip-Flop:

Truth table of J-K Flip-flop
image source:-https://www.electronicspoint.com

It is a flip-flop that constructed with 2 variables similar to RS flip-flop but it returns 0 and 1. Instead forbidden this flip-flop uses clock pulse to activate or deactivate the logical circuit. The R-S flip-flop can construct in J-K after using AND logical operator and pass the input of R-S output with AND logical gate.

3. D Flip-Flop:

R-S Flip-Flop
Image source:-http://www.learnabout-electronics.org

This flip-flop uses 1 variable as input and returns output so it identified as delay flip-flop. It constructed with AND & NAND logic gate to accept the input and generate output. It also uses clockwise to activate and deactivate the circuit.

4. T Flip-Flop:

T Flip-Flop
image source:-http://www.circuitstoday.com

This flip=flop identify as the toggle flip-flop. It also uses the single variable and constructed R-S & J-K Flip-flop with particular logical gate.

5. Master-Slave Flip-Flop:

Master-Slave Flip-Flop
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It is a Flip-flop that is constructed with 2 flip-flops as master and slave. It means the slave automatically in a process when the master gets fail, it uses clock pulse to manage the master and slave flip-flop for activation and deactivation.

Decoder:

Table and Diagram of Decoder
image source:-https://upload.wikimedia.org

User language into machine language. It means the data are decoded into machine format for processing. The decoders are defined on the base of input like n*(2)power n decoder where n identifies a number of variables.

The system decodes the input data into the machine for micro-operation. If the 2*4 disorder, It uses 2 variable as input and generates output. If the input is 0,0 then the output is D0, the input is 0,1 then activate D2 and D3 when the input is 1,1. It constructed with AND logical operator to process the data.

Encoder:

Encoder
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It is a combinational circuit that process opposite of Decoder. It means it encodes the system data into user format as output. It also constructed with a boolean variable like (2)power n * n where n identifies the number of inputs.

It encodes the system data into users format and it returns 0,0 if the decoder 0 is activate, 0,1 if D1 is activate, 1,0 if D2 is activate and 1,1 if D3 is activate in 4*2 encoder. It constructor with OR logical operator for accept input and encode into users format.

Multiplexer:

Multiplexers & Demultiplexers. Digital Electronics Lesson 2.4 – Specific Combo Circuits & Misc Topics. 4-to-1 Multiplexer (MUX) MUX. D0. D1. D2. D3. Y. B A. B. A. Y. D0. 1. D1. D2. D3. SSI logic diagram, block diagram, and truth table for a 4-to-1 MUX. Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009.
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It is a circuit that accepts more than one input and generates the single output. Multiplexer means many to one. It defines as the n*1 multiplexer. Multiplexer accepts the input and selects extra input on the base of data so it also is known as the data selector. The selection value defines the base of input. It constructed with AND and OR logical operator to select value and generate the single output.

Register:

Registers
image source:-https://image.slidesharecdn.com

It is a temporary unit of the computer that holds the value for data processing. It contains data and instruction both as temporary. It is electronic device so the values are released from the register after turn off the power.

Register storage unit store binary value as 0 and 1. The register also contains Flip-Flop and are connected in parallel format. It also helps to process micro-operation and help to CPU for data storage. The system uses different types of a register to transfer the value between them.

Shift Register:

shift register
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It is a type of register that use for temporary data storage but it manages the shifting process of data between multiple registers. This register constructed with 2 bit so it accepts 4 input. It returns mo change if the input is 0,0 shift the data in the right direction if an input is 0,1 shift in left direction if an input is 1,0 and parallel load the data when the input is 1,1.

Counter:

It is a basic function of a computer to remember the clock pulse. That perform more than one time for executing a particular task. It is basically used to count clock pulse that applied to the input. It is basically used for the scientific purpose.

1. Asynchronous Counter:

A Decade Counter (asynchronous counter)
image source:-http://slideplayer.com

It is a type of counter that manages the process as 1 by 1 for a different clock pulse. It means the data are processed with a separate clock pulse and controlled by an asynchronous counter.

2. Synchronous Counter:

synchronous
image source:-https://i.stack.imgur.com

It is a counter that process data between Flip-flop. All flip-flops are in synchronous counter and control under the same clock pulse. It means the data processed at single clock-pulse completely that count by a synchronous counter.

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