What is database
Data is a collection of data records and arranged in an organized format. They are processed and managed by the database. The system provides different type application like Oracle, My-SQL, SQL server, ms excess etc for managing basically used to store the data into the organized format as permanent. The dictionary telephone directly etc one of the examples of the database.
File approach and database approach
The data are stored into file format in a particular way as permanent storage but we can not manage the data records and easily excess and manipulate the records and it also supports the query language for controlling the information.In file processing, the data cannot be managed like data rigid end disk storage etc but database helps us to manage the duplicate records and disk management processing for controlling the information.
Characteristics of the database:
The database is managed by the computer application. The data are represented into records format and managed with the help of its applications.
- field-> It is the smallest unit of the database that identifies the heading of a particular record. It helps to excess the data from the database.
- Record->It is the collection of data which are stored in different rows in RDBMS(Relational database management system)
- File-> It is the way to identify the data records and helps to excess the information.
- Database->It is a collection of related files.It also helps to controls the data records.
Key->It is a way to define the key filled for unique data identification. it does not store repeated value.
The database is a collection of relative file and process in a particular format. It uses different tools to manage the data and relative tools to and relative files in a systematic file. The data records are managed in database application with different fields and rows.
Database management system
Database management system is a package that allows data storage and manipulation into the system. There is different software package life my SQL, Oracle etc use into a system of data management data model.
It is the description of the organization of the database. The data model decision on the base of organization requirement and represent the detail of database like NTT, attribute relationship etc. A database collection similar information and it identify NTT. each can contain particular characteristics that are known as Attribute.
Types of DBMS
- HDBMS(Hierarchical DBMS)
It is a type of DBMS that store the data into the Hierarchical format. The data record is related are related together into the node and subnode format, it helps to contain a switch for one to another node. This model develops by IBM company in 1968 and introduces in IMS(information management). The data are linked together as organization chat and display all information in the database. It is a simple and natural method for representing data and its relationship in the form of Hierarchical the main drawback on this module that cannot represent on the relationship between the data records. There is more problem to insert, delete and other manipulation data records.
- NDBMS(Network database management system)
It is a type of database that store the data similar to hierarchical bur node are connected together for representing the relationship. This database used in particular format where a node connected with multiple records. It provides one to one, many to many relationships.
This model helps to use to represent all relationship and easily manage the records and its related data. Tha main drawback of this model is to maintain pointer for waiting for relation. This model is not sufficient for high-level insertion delete updates etc
- RDBMS(Relational database management system)
It is a model of the database that represents the record into rows and columns format. The database package support this model for manipulating the records and process similar to a table. In this term, the table is represented as a relation and allow to manage a group of data into one and more independent tables and can relate together also.
In this model, we can easily represent the data records and manipulate also. It provides different Key like primary composite foreign etc as a key field of the database.
- ODBMS(Object-oriented database management system)
It is a database that manages similar object but it supports particular programming language which manages not the object-oriented concept. It supports the feature of an object-oriented programming language like class object in a returns etc for maintaining the data to the item the programming language like C++, Java, object-oriented use this model for the database as backend for software development. It provides nested table structure and ascending feature of a data record in the rows and column format. The data record can access with the help of an object. This model also provides multiple data types for data storage like int, char etc
- DDBMS(Distributed database management system)
It is the database management system that allows sharing the data records between the multiple with the help of networking. The system uses a centralized database and provides its processing between multiple connected systems. There are multiple users process data records at a different location. The computers in distributed system communicated and exchange the record one o another with the help of lies line, telephone line. The database application share between multiple computer data all information.
It provides data sharing, distributed controlled centralized system, fast processing etc are the advances. The main drawback of this model more costly errors in communication, control security maintenance etc
Advantages of DBMS
The database represents the relationship between the data item and helps manipulated with the multiple tables. We can control the data redundancy, integrity of data, table, and data dictionary also. DBMS helps us to control more than one users with different permission like insert, update, delete etc