Relational Algebra In Dbms

Relational algebra

Relational algebra

Relational algebra is used for processer. query language to manipulate the data with a different operator. It consists of the set operator to manipulate the data record into the symbolic format.

Algebra operation

Relational algebra can be divided into a different set of operation like union intersection etc it also provides relation operation like join, projects, select etc. It provides particular symbol control the instructions.


It is a symbol that allows extracting the record form a relational record. It identifies with the Greek letter sigma. This operation allows to filter the record from the database on the base given condition we use conditional operator(=,<,>,==,<=,=>,≠) to check the condition and logical operator(Λ(AND), V(OR)) for relating the condition and logical value.




                  σ(Roll 5)(std)


σ(marks>50 ∧ marks<90)(std)


It is an algebraic operation that separates the fields for extracting the data. This operation identifies by Greek letter pie(Π). It is used to select the particular column to display records. We can also use select operation with this process.


Π(<field list>)(relation)


Π(name, marks)(std)

Π(name, marks  σ(marks>90))(std)


Set operations
  1. Set union->

It is a way to combine more than attributes or entities and generate particular records but doesn’t repeat signal value this operation denote with this symbol(U).




     2.Set intersection->

This operation also controls the relations but display only common records. This operation denoted with (n) symbol.




    3.Set Difference->

It is an operation that denoted by(-) minus. Symbol to combine the relation but identify the records which are not available records which are not available in another relation and vise versa.



A-B={1,3,4}which is not in B

B-A={9,6,8}which is not in A

 4.Cross product->

This algebraic operation combines relation and displays records in product format. It identifies as (X) symbol.




       5.Join Operation

It is an operation that combines more than one relation and processes the data it basically uses the join operation contribute the result after processing the data between more than one relation. The relation. The relation identifies as () symbol.

->Equi join

It is a type of join that combines the relation with another relation using equality values in one or more column. Equijoin the identify with(=) Symbol the result of this join operation also have one and more pair of the attribute that has identical value in every topple.


Thetha join->

It is a join operation that combines the relation on the base of the particular condition. We use conditional operation less than greater than etc of checking the condition and combine the relation. Θ symbol. This symbol identifies Θ join operation

Natural join->

It is the type of joining that the also compare the relation similar to equijoin but it generates new relation after joining. In this joining operation, the new tables don’t have any duplicate records.

Outer join->

In this join operation. The data are combined together. It shows all data from a table even if corresponding data is not another table. It means outer join must commonly use with the tables having records on one too many relationships.

Relational calculus

The query is represented as formula consisting of a number of variables and an expression involving these variables. The relational calculus a provide a formula to manage the queries and its processing. The variables represent tuple from the particular relation and also represent the domain. DBMS provide non-processor queries to manipulate the data record as a transform of data tuple and domain calculus are collectively referred to as relation calculus.

Tuple Relation calculus

It is also used to manage the queries and data manipulation as tuple oriented relation calculate expression. A tuple calculates expression in the non-process definition of particular relation in term of giving a set of relationships. The expression is defined for manipulating the record like the update, delete etc.


A variable process n topple relation single as progress variable that contains data as temporary and defines with particular char etc


The condition uses to get particular data from the data table and generate a particular output. The conditional operators used to check the conditions and manage the expression.

WFF(Well format formula)

It should be a sequence of symbol that is used in an expression to manipulate the data record. It provides logical expression for combining the condition and return logical value.Tapple value calculus provides a formula for getting the value from the relation.

Syntax: {Var l relation(Var)}

Example-> {A I std(A)}

{t.roll, l.name l std(t)}

{t.roll, t.name i std(t) and t.mark>50}

{t l std(t) and t.mark>90}

{t.name l std(t) and t.marks>50 or t.mark <90}

{t.name, t.roll lstd(t) and t.name= “anna” and t.mark>50}

SAFF Expression->

It is quantifier that allows to combined the relation and returned particular output. It provide universal quantifies()() to combine relation as a union, exercise quantifier [∋]to represent common record between the relation and negation(¬) that process difference preparation a safe expression is an relation. Calculus is one fiite number of tapple as the result otherwise the expression is acalled unsafe. SQL(Structure query language) also support quantifier for safe expression.


It differs from the tuple calculus in that is a variable range over domains calculus also support domain variable, condition, and WFF.





About the author

Pulkit Wadhwa

Add Comment

Click here to post a comment